• Rare Earths Elements in High-Tech Industries with Focus on ...

     · Rare earth elements (REE) are a group of 15-17 elements comprising the lanthanides (atomic numbers 57-71) plus yttrium and scandium. Rare …

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  • jigging process in mineral processing advantages ...

    Rare Earth Elements: A Review of Production, Processing, Recycling, and Associated Environmental Issues. ... Jigging Machine Overview Jigging machine also named jigger equipment is used widely in coal mining industry for coal processing, coal selection, various coal . » Learn More.

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  • Big Wind''s Dirty Little Secret: Toxic Lakes and ...

     · Big Wind''s Dependence on China''s "Toxic Lakes". The wind industry requires an astounding amount of rare earth minerals, primarily neodymium and dysprosium, which are key components of the magnets used in modern wind turbines. Developed by GE in 1982, neodymium magnets are manufactured in many shapes and sizes for numerous purposes.

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  • China''s Rare Earths Industry and its Role in the ...

    2 • Commercial applications: Rare earth elements are used in items ranging from cell phones and computer hard drives to MRI machines. In addition, are necessary in the productthey ion of many green technologies, including electric and hybrid vehicle motors, wind turbines,* and energy efficient fluorescent light bulbs.6 • Military applications:Rare earths also play a critical role in ...

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  • Rare opportunity to recycle rare earths

     · Pricing has continued to slide, fetching less than 4 cents per gram ($1.13 per ounce) as of late November 2017. China plays a huge role in rare-earth elements—one that is forcing users of these metals to look for recycled sources. For instance, China produces more than 90 …

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  • U.S. Weapons Systems Dependent on Rare Earth Elements from ...

     · Rare earth elements are essential for the production of numerous weapons in the U.S. arsenal, including Tomahawk cruise-missiles, smart bombs, Predator drones, electromagnetic railguns, laser weapons, the electric motors in Joint-Strike Fighters, radar, and submarine communications systems. From the 1960s to the 1980s, the United States was the ...

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  • Characterization and Leaching of Neodymium Magnet Waste ...

     · The rare-earth elements (REEs) are considered as some of the most critical elements in the EU and the USA today. E-scrap, such as end-of-life neodymium magnets, could be a viable secondary source for the recovery of these elements. Neodymium magnets (NdFeB) consist of considerable amounts of Nd, Dy, Pr, and some other REEs, depending on the specific application.

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  • Recovery of rare earth elements from acid mine drainage ...

     · In 2017, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a program to develop domestic sources of rare earth elements (REE). The REE is a family of 17 elements that are critical and strategic elements for the manufacturer of communication, energy, defense, and aerospace products and systems.

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  • Why rare earth recycling is rare – and what we can do ...

    "Prices of some rare earths rose by 2,000 percent and more," says Jim Sims of rare earth mining company Molycorp, which recently reopened a shuttered rare earth mine in California. Rare earth element prices have since dropped and are now much less volatile — thanks in part to the opening or reopening of Molycorp mines and others around the world.

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  • Electronic waste is mined for rare earth elements

     · Rare earth elements are the "secret sauce" of numerous advanced materials for energy, transportation, defense and communications applications. Their largest use …

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  • Environmental Damage

    Most rare earth elements are mined through open pit mining, which involves opening the surface of the earth using heavy equipment and machinery. Creating this disruption on the surface of the earth disrupts thriving ecosystems. Furthermore, mines are the point source of release for three major contaminants: are radionuclides, rare earth ...

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  • Rare Earth Elements: Why the U.S. is missing out on the ...

     · Rare earth elements and metals used in cell phones, supercomputers and more are sitting on the ocean floor, ready to be mined by multiple countries. So …

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  • Extracting Rare Earth Elements From Catalytic Converters

    The device on the left is the XRF machine used to find the elements weight percent. Recommendation The objective of this SURF project was to design a method to extract rare earth elements from the monolith of a catalytic converter. The monolith is coated with different metals to clean emissions. Rare

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  • China Wrestles with the Toxic Aftermath of Rare Earth ...

     · Beginning in the 1990s, rare earth mining took off in this region, located in Southeast China about 300 miles north of Hong Kong. As China began to produce more smartphones, wind turbines, electric vehicles, and other high-tech products requiring rare earth elements, the mining intensified. But the removal of these elements from the earth''s ...

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  • Wyoming Mining Association: Rare Earths Mining in Wyoming

    Rare Earth Facts. There are 17 rare earth elements. Rare earth elements aren''t actually that rare. China is the world''s dominant producer of rare earth elements with more than 95% of production. Only one rare earth mine, at Mountain Pass, CA, has ever been developed in the United States.

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  • Rare-Earth Elements Discovered In Georgia Kaolin Mines ...

     · Rare-earth elements are used to make critical products, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, X-ray intensifying screens, portable X-ray machines, medical lasers, fiber optics, optical lenses, pressure sensors, monitors and television screens, fluorescent lamps, rechargeable battery electrodes and permanent magnets.

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  • Toxic and radioactive: The damage from mining rare elements

     · Securing just one ton of rare earth elements produces 2,000 tons of toxic waste, and has devastated large regions of China, said Günther Hilpert, Head …

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  • Critical Mineral Commodities in Renewable Energy

    RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS Responsible for some of the most powerful and efficient magnets on the planet, rare-earth elements enable wind turbines to have smaller, lighter generators. Although the United States mined and exported rare-earth minerals in 2018, it relied on imports to meet its domestic demands for rare-earth compounds, metals, and ...

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  • Rare Earth Elements (Metals)

     · The rare earth elements (REEs) or rare earth metals (REMs) are a group of metals found within the same ores and possessing similar chemical properties. Scientists and engineers disagree on exactly which element should be included in a list of the rare earths, but they generally include the fifteen lanthanide elements, plus scandium and yttrium.

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  • Digging for rare earths: The mines where iPhones are born ...

     · The center of rare-earth mining there is Baotou, a city in Inner Mongolia with 2.3 million residents that''s become something of a poster child for mining''s ecological wreckage.

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  • Rare-Earth Elements

    Rare-Earth Elements Chapter O of Critical Mineral Resources of the United States—Economic and Environmental Geology and Prospects for Future Supply U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1802–O. 1A 8A 2A 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 11B 12B 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A

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  • Explainer: U.S. dependence on China''s rare earth

     · Apple Inc uses rare earth elements in speakers, cameras and to make phones vibrate. The United States imported $160 million of rare earth compounds and metals in …

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  • Fun Facts About Rare Earth Elements

    machines, MRIs and lasers − use rare earth elements. Rare earths are essential to the medical industry . Fun Facts About Rare Earth Elements. REEs are commonly used in manufacturing, especially consumer electronics −such as tablet computers, mobile …

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  • Determination of rare earth elements, uranium and thorium ...

    At the present time, rare earth elements deposits have became in strategic resources for extraction of raw materials in order to manufacture high tech devices (computers, LCD, cell phones, batteries for hybrid vehicles, fiber optics and wind turbines) (1).The appropriate analytical determination of the REE ( rare earth elements) in sediment and rock samples, is important to find potential ...

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  • Mineral & Rare Earth Elements Analyzer | Thermo Fisher ...

    Mineral & Rare Earth Elements Analyzers. Portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technology can be used in a wide range of mineralogical and geological exploration markets, one of which is the mining of Rare Earth Elements (REEs). REEs are defined as the 15 lanthanides plus scandium (Sc) and yttrium (Y), and they are critical components in consumer ...

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  • semiconductors

     · The "rare earth elements" are in several places in common electronics. Strong magnets commonly use rare earth elements.. Ceramic capacitors also use rare earth elements. Pretty much any piece of modern electronic equipment will contain ceramic capacitors.

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  • Rare Earth Recycling | Department of Energy

     · Rare earth metals, including the lanthanide series, scandium, and yttrium, are critical components in permanent magnets, electric vehicles, smartphones, and more. The elements occur naturally as mixtures in ores and must be purified prior to use. However, the mining and separation of the mineral ore is challenging, in addition to being energy ...

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  • On the Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Geothermal ...

    The availability of rare earth elements from primary resources has come into question in the last two decades. This has sparked various government and industry initiatives to examine potential rare earth element resources apart from ore bodies. Geothermal fluids are potentially significant sources of valuable minerals and metals, while co-recovery with geothermal energy production would ...

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  • Hydrometallurgy of Rare Earths | ScienceDirect

    Since the separation factors of adjacent rare-earth element are very small and change with the content changes of adjacent rare-earth element and other rare-earth elements, it is important to understand this feature and the basic knowledge of these extractants in extraction of rare earths for correctly designing the test works or processes of ...

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  • A Study on Removal of Rare Earth Elements from U.S. Coal ...

     · Rare earth elements are known to occur in low concentrations in U.S. coals and coal byproducts. These low concentrations may make rare earth element recovery from these materials unattractive, using only physical separation techniques. However, given the significant production of rare earths through ion exchange extraction in China, two U.S. coal byproducts were examined for ion …

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  • Rare earth elements: A review of applications, occurrence ...

     · Rare earth elements (REE) include the lanthanide series elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) plus Sc and Y. Currently these metals have become very critical to several modern technologies ranging from cell …

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  • Leaching of Rare Earth Elements from Central Appalachian ...

    Rare earth elements (REE) are necessary for advanced technological and energy applications. To support the emerging need, it is necessary to identify new domestic sources of REE and technologies to separate and recover saleable REE product in a safe and economical manner. Underclay rock associated with Central Appalachian coal seams and prevalent in coal utilization waste products is an ...

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  • Leaching Kinetics of Rare Earth Elements from Fire Clay ...

    Recovery of rare earth elements (REEs) from coal samples collected from the Fire Clay coal seam using diluted mineral acid solutions was investigated. The initial processing step was coal recovery using conventional froth flotation which concentrated the REEs in tailing material resulting in an upgrade to values around 700 ppm on a dry whole mass basis.

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  • What are ''rare earths'' used for?

     · Rare earth elements are chemically similar and are sometimes used in similar ways. "Rare earths" are a group of 17 chemically similar elements crucial to the manufacture of …

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  • Geochemical Evidence for Rare-Earth Element Mobilization ...

     · Rare-earth element geochemistry signatures are particularly useful for tracking element sources and mobility and are, therefore, powerful tools in the investigation of clay mineral formation and diagenesis. Rare-earth element and bulk chemical compositions were determined using discrete chemical analyses and chemical imaging.

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